Symptoms usually derive from malformation growth or progression. Once symptoms occur, they rarely abate without intervention.
Symptoms can include, but are not limited to, the following:
Decreased Range of Motion
High Output Cardiac Failure
Evaluation, arteriogram and treatment of the arteriovenous malformation every 4-6 weeks or sooner if indicated by Dr. Yakes.
Patient may qualify for multiple procedures a week if requested by Dr. Yakes.
MRI every 12 months based on the extent of the arteriovenous malformation.
Referral to plastic/vascular surgeon following "cure" of malformation. An MRI and arteriogram 3-6 months post embolization will be needed for clearance by Dr. Yakes for debulking surgery.
How to Diagnose
Diagnosis is commonly made with a form of radiology imaging combined with a clinical assessment.
Radiology imaging can include:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Arteriogram (Mapping of the arteries)
Evaluates the extent of arterial involvement
On initial treatment only:
Venogram (Mapping of the veins)
Evaluates the extent of venous involvement
Possible Complications of Treatment
Nerve Injury Due to Swelling
99% improves when swelling resolves
1% nerve damage will be permanent
Complications will be thoroughly discussed during formal consultation with medical staff as they may differ based on anatomical location.
How We Treat
Dr. Yakes will inject ethanol using direct puncture and/or transcatheter techniques into the arteriovenous malformation.
Ethanol is a powerful sclerosing agent that denatures blood proteins and destroys the endothelial cells in the vessel wall effectively destroying the abnormal vascular mass and preventing its ability to regenerate.
Dr. Yakes will implant coils, either by direct puncture or transcatheter techniques, into the arteriovenous malformation with subsequent ethanol after coils are implanted if needed.
Ethanol and/or coils are the only curative method for treating arteriovenous malformations
All embolizations, venograms, and arteriograms are done under general anesthesia.