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Symptoms usually derive from malformation growth or progression. Once symptoms occur, they rarely abate without intervention.

Symptoms can include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Pain

  • Swelling

  • Bleeding

  • Ulcerations

  • Neuropathy

  • Disfigurement

  • Skin Discoloration 

  • Decreased Range of Motion

  • High Output Cardiac Failure 

Treatment Course

  • Evaluation, arteriogram and treatment of the arteriovenous malformation every 4-6 weeks or sooner if indicated by Dr. Yakes.

  • Patient may qualify for multiple procedures a week if requested by Dr. Yakes.

  • MRI every 12 months based on the extent of the arteriovenous malformation.

  • Referral to plastic/vascular surgeon following "cure" of malformation. An MRI and arteriogram 3-6 months post embolization will be needed for clearance by Dr. Yakes for debulking surgery. 

How to Diagnose

Diagnosis is commonly made with a form of radiology imaging combined with a clinical assessment. 


Radiology imaging can include:

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)​

  • Arteriogram (Mapping of the arteries)

    • Evaluates the extent of arterial involvement


  • On initial treatment only:

    • Venogram (Mapping of the veins)

      • Evaluates the extent of venous involvement

Possible Complications of Treatment

  • Tissue Injury

    • Blisters

    • Open Wounds

  • Infection

  • Nerve Injury Due to Swelling

    • 99% improves when swelling resolves

    •  1%  nerve damage will be permanent

  • Blood Clot

  • DVT

  • Stroke

  • Hemorrhage/Bleeding

    • Very Rare​


Complications will be thoroughly discussed during formal consultation with medical staff as they may differ based on anatomical location. 

How We Treat

  • Ethanol Embolization

    • Dr. Yakes will inject ethanol using direct puncture and/or transcatheter techniques into the arteriovenous malformation.

      • Ethanol is a powerful sclerosing agent that denatures blood proteins and destroys the endothelial cells in the vessel wall effectively destroying the abnormal vascular mass and preventing its ability to regenerate.

  • Coils

    • Dr. Yakes will implant coils, either by direct puncture or transcatheter techniques, into the arteriovenous malformation with subsequent ethanol after coils are implanted if needed.

  • Ethanol and/or coils are the only curative method for treating arteriovenous malformations

  • All embolizations, venograms, and arteriograms are done under general anesthesia. 

Before & After Gallery

Coming Soon!

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